AP Chemistry Standards

2.6 Differentiate among molecular, condensed, structural, and empirical formulas.
2.10 Use chemical analysis to determine the percent composition, empirical, and molecular formulas for substances
2.11a Use mass spectrometry to determine the molecular formula of a substance
2.11b Determine the formula of a hydrated compound
3.2 Balance chemical equations
3.4 Determine the solubility of ionic compounds and describe dissociation of soluble compounds
3.5 Write the net ionic equation for precipitation reactions
3.6 Write balanced net ionic equations for acid/base reactions and identify acids and bases.
3.8a Identify the oxidation state of atoms in ions and compounds.
3.8b Classify substances as oxidizing or reducing agents.
4.1 Calculate mass relations in chemical reactions using stoichiometry.
4.2 Calculate mass relations in chemical reactions when there is a limiting reactant present.
4.3 Calculate the percent yield for a chemical reaction when given experimental data.
4.5 Calculate concentration of a solution and how to prepare a solution by dilution.
4.6 Calculate the pH of a solution.
4.7 Use stoichiometry to complete chemical analysis with aqueous solutions.
4.8 Use spectrophotometry in chemical analysis to determine the concentration of a substance.
5.2 Use specific heat capacity in calculations of energy transfer as heat and of temperature changes.
5.3 Use enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization to calculate the energy transferred as heat in changes of state.
5.4 Use the First Law of Thermodynamics to describe how energy transferred as heat and work done on or by a system contribute to changes in the internal energy of a system.
5.5 Calculate the change in enthalpy for a simple chemical reaction.
5.6 Describe how to measure the quantity of energy transferred as heat in a reaction by calorimetry.
5.7a Use Hess’s law to find the enthalpy change, Δ4H°, for a reaction.
5.7b Draw and interpret energy level diagrams.
5.7c Use standard molar enthalpies of formation, ΔfH°, to calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction, ΔrH°.
6.1 Mathematically relate the wavelength and frequency of electromagnetic radiation.
6.2 Calculate the energy of a photon of electromagnetic radiation.
7.4 Using the Periodic Table as a guide, depict electron configurations of neutral atoms and monatomic ions.
7.5 Predict how properties of atoms – size, ionization energy, and electron attachment enthalpy – change on moving down a group or across a period of the Periodic Table.
7.6 Describe the role that ionization energy and electron attachment enthalpy play in forming ionic compounds.
8.2 Draw Lewis Dot Diagrams for atoms.
8.3 Calculate formal charges for polyatomic ions.
8.4 Draw resonance structure and demonstrate how and when to use this means of representing chemical bonding.
8.5 Draw resonance structures and describe exceptions to the Octet Rule.
8.6 Predict the shape or geometry of molecules and ions of main group elements using VSEPR theory.
8.7 Define electronegativity and describe how it is used to describe the unequal sharing of electrons between atoms in a bond.
8.8 Predict the polarity of a molecule.
8.9 Define and predict trends in bond order, bond length, and bond dissociation enthalpy.
9.2a Identify the number of hybrid orbital, their hybridization, the electron pair geometry, and their bond angle in compounds.
9.2b Identify the hybridization of central atoms that meet and expand the octet rule.
9.2c Differentiate between pi and sigma bonds and identify each of a molecule.
9.3 Identify the bond order of ions.
11.1 Define pressure and convert among different units of pressure.
11.2 Apply the gas laws to various situations.
11.3 Apply the ideal gas law to various situations and calculate the molar mass of a compound from a knowledge of the pressure of a known quantity of gas in a given volume at a known temperature.
11.4 Apply the gas laws to a study of the stoichiometry of reactions.
11.5 Apply Dalton’s law of partial pressures to various situations.
11.6 Apply the kinetic-molecular theory of gas behavior at the molecular level.
11.7 Understand the phenomena of diffusion and effusion and how to use Graham’s Law.
11.8 Identify and describe situations where gases do and/or do not behave as ideal gases.
12.5a Identify intermolecular forces that would be expected between certain inorganic molecules.
12.5b Identify situations of likely hydrogen bonding among organic molecules.
12.5c Identify intermolecular forces that would be expected between certain organic molecules.
12.5d Identify likely consequences of varying levels of intermolecular forces among molecules.
12.6a Describe the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid, and explain the relationship between the vapor pressure and the boiling point of a liquid.
12.6b Describe the phenomena of the critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.
12.6c Describe how intermolecular interactions affect the cohesive forces between identical liquid molecules, the energy necessary to break through the surface of a liquid, capillary action, and the resistance to flow, or viscosity, of liquids.
12.6d Explain the processes of evaporation and condensation, and use the enthalpy of vaporization in calculations.
13.2 Describe the relation of unit cell structure and formula for ionic compounds.
13.3 Relate the band theory of bonding in metals and the electrical conductivity in metals.
13.4 Describe lattice energy and how it is calculated.
13.5 Describe the general properties of other types of solids.
14.2a Differentiate among saturation, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions; miscible vs. immiscible; describe the process of dissolving a solute in a solvent, including the energy changes that may occur
14.2b Relate intermolecular forces to solubility
14.3a Describe the effect of pressure and temperature on the solubility of a solute.
14.3b Use Henry’s law to calculate the solubility of a gas in a solvent, and apply Le Chatelier’s principle to the change in solubility of gases with temperature changes.
15.1 Explain the concept of reaction rate and derive the average and instantaneous rates of a reaction from concentration vs. time data.
15.3a Write rate laws and complete rate law calculations.
15.3b Derive a rate equation from experimental data.
15.4a Complete integrated rate law calculations on first order reactions.
15.4b Complete integrated rate law calculations on zeroth and second order reactions.
15.4c Apply graphical methods for determining reaction order and the rate constant from experimental data.
15.5a Describe the collision theory of reaction rates and use collision theory to describe the effect of reactant concentration on reaction rate.
15.5b Describe the effect of molecular orientation, temperature, and activation energy to the rate of a reaction.
15.5c Understand and interpret reaction coordinate diagrams.
15.6a Describe the elementary steps of a mechanism, and give their molecularity.
15.6b Define the rate-determining step in a mechanism, and identify any reaction intermediates.
16.2a Write equilibrium constant expressions for chemical reactions.
16.2b Use the reaction quotient to determine how a reaction will proceed towards equilibrium.
16.3 Calculate an equilibrium constant using concentrations or partial pressures.
16.4 Calculate equilibrium concentrations using an equilibrium constant.
16.5 Describe how an equilibrium constant changes as different stoichiometry coefficients are used in a balanced equation, if an equation is reversed, or if several equations are added to give a new net equation.
16.6 Predict, using Le Chatelier’s principle, the effect of a distubance on a chemical equilibrium – a change in termperature, a change in concentrations, or a change in volume or pressure for a reaction involving gases.
17.2 Write net ionic equations for acid/base reactions and identify conjugate pairs in reactions.
17.3a Calculate the hydroxide and/or hydronium ion concentrations in various solutions.
17.3b Calculate the pH of strong acid and strong base solutions.
17.4a Write balanced chemical equations and equilibrium constant expressions for Ka and Kb.
17.4b Compare acid and base strength of Ka and Kb values, respectively.
17.5 Approximate the pH value of various solutions created from salt solutes.
17.6 Write balanced, net ionic equations for the reaction between acids and bases and determine whether the equilibrium lies predominantly to the left or the right.
17.7 Calculate the pH of the resulting solution when combining acids and bases.
17.8a Calculate a Ka or Kb value from a measured pH or pOH.
17.8b Calculate equilibrium concentrations and pH from a given Ka.
18.2a Describe the functioning of buffer solutions and use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the pH of a buffer solution of given composition.
18.2b Describe how to prepare a buffer of given pH and predict pH change when an acid or base is added to the buffer.
18.3a Predict the pH of an acid-base reaction at its equivalence point.
18.3b Describe the differences between the titration curves for a strong acid-strong base titration and titrations in which one of the substances is weak.
18.4 Write the equilibrium constant expression – relating concentrations of ions in solutions to Ksp – for any insoluble salt and calculate Ksp values from experimental data
18.5 Calculate the ion concentrations that are required to begin precipitation of an insoluble salt.
19.4 Identify common processes that are entropy-favored and calculate entropy changes from tables of standard entropy values.
19.5 Use standard entropy and enthalpy changes to predict whether a reaction will be spontaneous under standard conditions and recognize how temperature influences whether a reaction is spontaneous.
19.6 Describe and use the relationship of ΔrG, ΔrG°, Q, K, reaction spontaneity, and product- or reactant-favorability, as well as free energy change under standard condition and equilibrium constants, to calculate various values.
19.7 Calculate the change in free energy at standard conditions for a reaction from the enthalpy and entropy changes under standard conditions or from the standard free energy of formation of reactants and products (ΔfG°).
20.1 Balance net ionic equations, identify the species oxidized and the species reduced, and show the balanced half-reactions.
20.2 In a voltaic cell, identify the half-reactions occurring at the anode and the cathode, the polarity of the electrodes, the direction of electron flow in the external circuit, and the direction of ion flow in the salt bridge.
20.4 Calculate the cell voltage in a voltaic cell.
20.6 Use the relationships between cell voltage and free energy and between cell voltage and an equilibrium constant for the cell reaction.
20.8 Relate the amount of a substance oxidized or reduced to the amount of current and the time the current flows.
L1 Justify the selection of a particular type of spectroscopy to measure properties associated with vibrational or electronic motions of molecules
L2 Experimentally determine the water of hydration and empirical formula of a compound
L3 Select and apply mathematical routines to mass data to identify or infer the composition of pure substances and/or mixtures
L4 Design and/or interpret the results of an experiment regarding the absorption of light to determine the concentration of an absorbing species in a solution
L5 Experimentally determine the molecular weight of a compound
L6 Design, and/or interpret data from, and experiment that uses gravimetric analysis to determine the concentration of an analyte in a solution
L7 Experimentally calculate the equilibrium constant K for a given system at a given temperature
L8 Design, and/or interpret data from, an experiment that uses titration to determine the concentration of an analyte in a solution
L9 Use stoichiometric calculations to predict the results of performing a reaction in the laboratory and/or to analyze deviations from the expected results
L10 Design and/or interpret the results of an experiment involving a redox titration
L11 Create a standardized solution using a given solute and solvent
L12 Design and/or interpret the results of an experiment in which calorimetry is used to determine the change in enthalpy of a chemical process (heating/cooling, phase transition, or chemical reaction) at constant pressure.
L13 Use calculations or estimations to relate energy changes associated with heating/cooling a substance to the heat capacity, relate energy changes associated with a phase transition to the enthalpy of fusion/vaporization, relate energy changes associated with a chemical reaction to the enthalpy of the reaction, and relate energy changes to work.
L14 Design and/or interpret the results of a separation experiment (filtration, paper chromatography, column chromatography, or distillation) in terms of the relative strength of interactions among and between components.
L15 Describe the relationships between the structural features of polar molecules and the forces of attraction between the particles.
L16.1 Design or evaluate a plan to collect and/or interpret data needed to deduce the type of bonding in a sample of a solid.
L16.2 Explain how solutes can be separated by chromatography based on intermolecular interactions
L17 Use data from synthesis or decomposition of a compound to confirm the conservation of matter and the law of definite proportions
L18 Evaluate the classification of a process as a physical change, chemical change, or ambiguous change based on both macroscopic observations and the distinction between rearrangement of covalent interactions and noncovalent interactions
L19 Design a plan in order to collect data on the synthesis or decomposition of a compound to confirm the conservation of matter and the law of definite proportions
L20 Select and apply mathematical relationships to mass data in order to justify a claim regarding the identity and/or estimated purity of a substance
L21 Use representations of the energy profile for an elementary reaction (from the reactants, through the transition state, to the products) to make qualitative predictions regarding the relative temperature dependence of the reaction rate
L22 Analyze concentration vs. time data to determine the rate law for a zeroth-, first-, or second-order reaction
L23 Use Le Chatelier’s Principle to design a set of conditions that will optimize a desired outcome, such as product yield
L24 Interpret titration data for monoproticor polyprotic acids involving titration of a weak or strong acid by a strong base (or a weak or strong base by a strong acid) to determine the concentration of the titrant and the pKa for a weak acid, or the pKb for a weak base
L25 Identify the most appropriate indicator to use when doing titrations involving substances with varying pH values
L26 Design and/or interpret the results of an experiment regarding the factors (i.e., temperature, concentration, surface area) that may influence the rate of a reaction.
L27 Identify a solution as being a buffer solution and explain the buffer mechanism in terms of the reactions that would occur on addition of acid or base
L28 Design a buffer solution with a target pH and buffer capacity by selecting an appropriate conjugateacid-base pair and estimating the concentrations needed to achieve the desired capacity
L29 Analyze data regarding galvanic or electrolytic cells to identify properties of the underlying redox reactions
L30 Make qualitative or quantitative predictions about galvanic or electrolytic reactions based on half-cell reactions and potentials and/or Faraday’s Laws

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