Unit 1: Review of Chemistry
PI 2Determine the molecular formula of a compound
2.6Differentiate among molecular, condensed, structural, and empirical formulas.
2.10Use chemical analysis to determine the percent composition, empirical, and molecular formulas for substances
2.11aUse mass spectrometry to determine the molecular formula of a substance
2.11bDetermine the formula of a hydrated compound
PI 3.1Write, balance, and simplify chemical and net ionic equations
3.2Balance chemical equations
3.4Determine the solubility of ionic compounds and describe dissociation of soluble compounds
3.5Write the net ionic equation for precipitation reactions
3.6Write balanced net ionic equations for acid/base reactions and identify acids and bases.
PI 3.2Identify and classify substances as oxidizing or reducing agents
3.8aIdentify the oxidation state of atoms in ions and compounds.
3.8bClassify substances as oxidizing or reducing agents.
PI 4.1Use stoichiometry to calculate unknown quantities in chemical reactions
4.1Calculate mass relations in chemical reactions using stoichiometry.
4.2Calculate mass relations in chemical reactions when there is a limiting reactant present.
4.3Calculate the percent yield for a chemical reaction when given experimental data.
PI 4.2Use stoichiometry to calculate more complicated unknown quantities in chemical reactions, including pH
4.5Calculate concentration of a solution and how to prepare a solution by dilution.
4.6Calculate the pH of a solution.
4.7Use stoichiometry to complete chemical analysis with aqueous solutions.
PI 4.3Use spectrophotometry in chemical analysis to determine the concentration of a substance
4.8Use spectrophotometry in chemical analysis to determine the concentration of a substance.
Unit 2: Introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics
PI 5.1Quantify the change in heat energy that takes place through chemical reactions
5.2Use specific heat capacity in calculations of energy transfer as heat and of temperature changes.
5.3Use enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization to calculate the energy transferred as heat in changes of state.
5.4Use the First Law of Thermodynamics to describe how energy transferred as heat and work done on or by a system contribute to changes in the internal energy of a system.
PI 5.2Calculate standard molar enthalpies for chemical reactions
5.5Calculate the change in enthalpy for a simple chemical reaction.
5.6Describe how to measure the quantity of energy transferred as heat in a reaction by calorimetry.
5.7aUse Hess's law to find the enthalpy change, Δ4H°, for a reaction.
5.7bDraw and interpret energy level diagrams.
5.7cUse standard molar enthalpies of formation, ΔfH°, to calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction, ΔrH°.
PI 6Solve quantitative wave and energy problems
6.1Mathematically relate the wavelength and frequency of electromagnetic radiation.
6.2Calculate the energy of a photon of electromagnetic radiation.
Unit 3: The Periodic Table
PI 7Use Periodicity and the Periodic Table to describe chemical trends
7.4Using the Periodic Table as a guide, depict electron configurations of neutral atoms and monatomic ions.
7.5Predict how properties of atoms - size, ionization energy, and electron attachment enthalpy - change on moving down a group or across a period of the Periodic Table.
7.6Describe the role that ionization energy and electron attachment enthalpy play in forming ionic compounds.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding
PI 8.1Draw Lewis Structures and calculate formal charges for polyatomic ions
8.2Draw Lewis Dot Diagrams for atoms.
8.3Calculate formal charges for polyatomic ions.
PI 8.2Draw and interpret resonance structures
8.4Draw resonance structure and demonstrate how and when to use this means of representing chemical bonding.
8.5Draw resonance structures and describe exceptions to the Octet Rule.
PI 8.3Predict the shape and polarity of a molecule
8.6Predict the shape or geometry of molecules and ions of main group elements using VSEPR theory.
8.7Define electronegativity and describe how it is used to describe the unequal sharing of electrons between atoms in a bond.
8.8Predict the polarity of a molecule.
8.9Define and predict trends in bond order, bond length, and bond dissociation enthalpy.
PI 9Identify types of bond and bond order of ions and molecules
9.2aIdentify the number of hybrid orbital, their hybridization, the electron pair geometry, and their bond angle in compounds.
9.2bIdentify the hybridization of central atoms that meet and expand the octet rule.
9.2cDifferentiate between pi and sigma bonds and identify each of a molecule.
9.3Identify the bond order of ions.
Unit 5: The Gas Laws
PI 11.1Use the gas laws to solve a variety of quantitative gaseous substance problems
11.1Define pressure and convert among different units of pressure.
11.2Apply the gas laws to various situations.
11.3Apply the ideal gas law to various situations and calculate the molar mass of a compound from a knowledge of the pressure of a known quantity of gas in a given volume at a known temperature.
11.4Apply the gas laws to a study of the stoichiometry of reactions.
PI 11.2Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to describe more complication gaseous compound situations
11.5Apply Dalton's law of partial pressures to various situations.
11.6Apply the kinetic-molecular theory of gas behavior at the molecular level.
11.7Understand the phenomena of diffusion and effusion and how to use Graham's Law.
11.8Identify and describe situations where gases do and/or do not behave as ideal gases.
Unit 6: Intermolecular Forces and Solids
PI 12.1Identify intermolecular forces present in different molecules
12.5aIdentify intermolecular forces that would be expected between certain inorganic molecules.
12.5bIdentify situations of likely hydrogen bonding among organic molecules.
12.5cIdentify intermolecular forces that would be expected between certain organic molecules.
12.5dIdentify likely consequences of varying levels of intermolecular forces among molecules.
PI 12.2Use intermolecular forces to determine a molecule's likely properties
12.6aDescribe the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid, and explain the relationship between the vapor pressure and the boiling point of a liquid.
12.6bDescribe the phenomena of the critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.
12.6cDescribe how intermolecular interactions affect the cohesive forces between identical liquid molecules, the energy necessary to break through the surface of a liquid, capillary action, and the resistance to flow, or viscosity, of liquids.
12.6dExplain the processes of evaporation and condensation, and use the enthalpy of vaporization in calculations.
PI 13Describe the properties of metals and ionic solids
13.2Describe the relation of unit cell structure and formula for ionic compounds.
13.3Relate the band theory of bonding in metals and the electrical conductivity in metals.
13.4Describe lattice energy and how it is calculated.
13.5Describe the general properties of other types of solids.
Unit 7: Solution Chemistry
PI 14Describe, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the properties of solutions
14.2aDifferentiate among saturation, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions; miscible vs. immiscible; describe the process of dissolving a solute in a solvent, including the energy changes that may occur
14.2bRelate intermolecular forces to solubility
14.3aDescribe the effect of pressure and temperature on the solubility of a solute.
14.3bUse Henry's law to calculate the solubility of a gas in a solvent, and apply Le Chatelier's principle to the change in solubility of gases with temperature changes.
Unit 8: Chemical Kinetics
PI 15.1Determine a rate equation from experimental data
15.1Explain the concept of reaction rate and derive the average and instantaneous rates of a reaction from concentration vs. time data.
15.3aWrite rate laws and complete rate law calculations.
15.3bDerive a rate equation from experimental data.
PI 15.2Complete integrated rate law calculations and use graphical methods to determine reaction order#colspan
15.4aComplete integrated rate law calculations on first order reactions
15.4bComplete integrated rate law calculations on zeroth and second order reactions
15.4cApply graphical methods for determining reaction order and the rate constant from experimental data
PI 15.3Use reaction coordinate diagrams to help understand the effect of different variables on reaction rate
15.5aDescribe the collision theory of reaction rates and use collision theory to describe the effect of reactant concentration on reaction rate
15.5bDescribe the effect of molecular orientation, temperature, and activation energy to the rate of a reaction
15.5cUnderstand and interpret reaction coordinate diagrams
PI 15.4Determine the rate-determining step in a mechanism and identify reaction intermediates
15.6aDescribe the elementary steps of a mechanism, and give their molecularity
15.6bDefine the rate-determining step in a mechanism, and identify any reaction intermediates
Unit 9: Advanced Equilibrium Chemistry
PI 16.1Calculate an equilibrium constant by writing a mass-action expression and using experimental data
16.2aWrite equilibrium constant expressions for chemical reactions.
16.2bUse the reaction quotient to determine how a reaction will proceed towards equilibrium.
16.3Calculate an equilibrium constant using concentrations or partial pressures.
16.4Calculate equilibrium concentrations using an equilibrium constant.
PI 16.2Use Le Chatelier's Principle to predict changes in concentration after a system at equilibrium is stressed
16.5Describe how an equilibrium constant changes as different stoichiometry coefficients are used in a balanced equation, if an equation is reversed, or if several equations are added to give a new net equation.
16.6Predict, using Le Chatelier's principle, the effect of a distubance on a chemical equilibrium - a change in termperature, a change in concentrations, or a change in volume or pressure for a reaction involving gases.
Unit 10: Advanced Acid/Base Chemistry
PI 17.1Write basic acid/base reactions and calculate the pH of strong acid and base solutions
17.2Write net ionic equations for acid/base reactions and identify conjugate pairs in reactions.
17.3aCalculate the hydroxide and/or hydronium ion concentrations in various solutions.
17.3bCalculate the pH of strong acid and strong base solutions.
PI 17.2Use Ka and Kb values to determine the pH of weak acid and base solutions
17.4aWrite balanced chemical equations and equilibrium constant expressions for Ka and Kb.
17.4bCompare acid and base strength of Ka and Kb values, respectively.
17.5Approximate the pH value of various solutions created from salt solutes.
PI 17.3Calculate different quantitative variables, including pH, pOH, Ka, and Kb for acid and base mixtures
17.6Write balanced, net ionic equations for the reaction between acids and bases and determine whether the equilibrium lies predominantly to the left or the right.
17.7Calculate the pH of the resulting solution when combining acids and bases.
17.8aCalculate a Ka or Kb value from a measured pH or pOH.
17.8bCalculate equilibrium concentrations and pH from a given Ka.
PI 18.1Determine the pH of various solutions including buffered solutions
18.2aDescribe the functioning of buffer solutions and use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the pH of a buffer solution of given composition.
18.2bDescribe how to prepare a buffer of given pH and predict pH change when an acid or base is added to the buffer.
18.3aPredict the pH of an acid-base reaction at its equivalence point.
18.3bDescribe the differences between the titration curves for a strong acid-strong base titration and titrations in which one of the substances is weak.
PI 18.2Use Ksp values to determine the solubility of an ionic salt
18.4Write the equilibrium constant expression - relating concentrations of ions in solutions to Ksp - for any insoluble salt and calculate Ksp values from experimental data
18.5Calculate the ion concentrations that are required to begin precipitation of an insoluble salt.
Unit 11: Advanced Chemical Thermodynamics
PI 19Calculate various quantitative thermodynamic variables associated with chemical reactions
19.4Identify common processes that are entropy-favored and calculate entropy changes from tables of standard entropy values.
19.5Use standard entropy and enthalpy changes to predict whether a reaction will be spontaneous under standard conditions and recognize how temperature influences whether a reaction is spontaneous.
19.6Describe and use the relationship of ΔrG, ΔrG°, Q, K, reaction spontaneity, and product- or reactant-favorability, as well as free energy change under standard condition and equilibrium constants, to calculate various values.
19.7Calculate the change in free energy at standard conditions for a reaction from the enthalpy and entropy changes under standard conditions or from the standard free energy of formation of reactants and products (ΔfG°).
Unit 12: Electrochemistry
PI 20Determine the cell voltage in a voltaic cell
20.1Balance net ionic equations, identify the species oxidized and the species reduced, and show the balanced half-reactions.
20.2In a voltaic cell, identify the half-reactions occurring at the anode and the cathode, the polarity of the electrodes, the direction of electron flow in the external circuit, and the direction of ion flow in the salt bridge.
20.4Calculate the cell voltage in a voltaic cell.
20.6Use the relationships between cell voltage and free energy and between cell voltage and an equilibrium constant for the cell reaction.
20.8Relate the amount of a substance oxidized or reduced to the amount of current and the time the current flows.